Monthly Archives: March 2017

Out Of Band Management server

Background
Sometimes I do stupid stuff like editing my firewall rules at home from a remote location and get myself locked out. Sometimes my internet connection is just broken for one reason or the other, this is when you need a out of band channel to your network. You can buy pretty expensive integrated hardware for this with 3G connection and serial consoles and so on, but since this is a project for my home network i decided to build something using a raspberry pi.

Prerequisites
To get this project going I wanted to have a raspberry pi, some sort of wireless connectivity and a serial console to my router.

So I got a Raspberry Pi 2B, this pretty neat case, a old Huawei E1752 from ebay and finally a Linocell Powerbank as a battery backup. For the actual mobile data I got a pre paid SIM card from Telia and got a few GB of data.

Raspberry Pi in case
Raspberry Pi in case

Physical setup and operating system
This setup is very basic and I just put the Pi inside the case and installed FreeBSD using the official image from freebsd.org. I draw power from the powerbank to the pi, and the powerbank is permanently hooked up to power, this way it will run for maybe an hour or so in the event of a power failure.

3G configuration
The reason i got the pretty old E1752 was because it was dirt cheap and also I was absolutley positive it was supported by the u3g driver in FreeBSD.

It is very easy to set up actually, you just put in into a USB port of your Pi and it shows up as three serial interfaces (and maybe some storage device). The first thing you should do is to put the modem in “modem only” mode by sending some AT-codes

# cu -l /dev/cuaU1.0
AT^U2DIAG=0
OK

Then its time to get nostalgic! edit the /etc/ppp/ppp.conf. This was the first time for me since 1998 or something. Of course you will need to figure out some stuff about your 3G provider and make changes accordingly

default:
 set log Phase Chat LCP IPCP CCP tun command
 set device /dev/cuaU1.0
 set timeout 180

telia:
 set speed 115200
 set timeout 0
# set authname wapuser1
# set authkey wap
 set dial "ABORT BUSY TIMEOUT 3 \
        \"\" \
        AT OK-AT-OK \
        AT+CFUN=1 OK-AT-OK \
        AT+CMEE=2 OK-AT-OK \
        AT+CSQ OK \
        AT+CGDCONT=1,\\\"IP\\\",\\\"online.telia.se\\\" OK \
        ATD*99# CONNECT"
 enable dns
 resolv writable
 set ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
 delete! default
 add! default HISADDR

then just test the connection by running “service ppp onestart”

Serial console
My router is located in a small patch cupboard and there was little room for another machine there, so I had to put my OOBM-server somewhere else in my apartment. Luckily I have RJ45 jacks everywhere that are patched to that cupboard so I could very easily run the serial console over the existing CAT6 cables. On the router side I just use a reglar serial cable with DB9 female on one side and a RJ45 male on the other side. On the OOBM-server side I have a simple USB-serial converter followed by a DB9 female to RJ45 female converter. The USB-serial converter shows up in FreeBSD as a regular serial interface like /dev/cuaU0.

RJ45 to DB9
RJ45 to DB9

Out Of Band functionality
Lets put everything together. The first thing i needed to figure out was how to enable the 3g connection remote, but this was pretty simple because the modem can receive sms messages. So I just send some magic/secret sms to the modem that tells it to connect.

Next problem I encountered was that Telia blocks all (?) incoming ports on the mobile connection and since I want to do ssh based administration this was a problem. To work around this problem I went for a solution where the OOBM-server first sets up the PPP connection and then sets up a ssh connection with remote port forwarding to one of my amazon instances. Then I just ssh to the amazon instance on some port and end up on “localhost” on the OOBM-server. On the amazon instance I have created a specific account only used for this purpose that accepts the ssh key used by the OOBM-server.

To put everything together I wrote a small python script that runs every few minutes and checks for valid sms messages on the modem and if it finds such message fires up the PPP connection and then the ssh connection. I will spare you the hazzle of reading my ugly code but here is some pseudo code describing what it does:

m = connect(modem)
if m.send_at("AT") != "OK":
   print "modem is not responsive"
   exit(1)

#Look for valid activation sms
for msg in m.messages():
    if msg.number == "NYNUMBER" && msg.text == "SECRET"
        activate = True
        break

#Try a maximum of three times to set up the connection.
if activate:
    for tries in range(3):
        start_ppp()

        #Check that we can reach internet
        test_connectivity()

        #check that we actually  reach internet via 3G
        verify_route() 
     
        # set up the reverse ssh (ssh -R 31337:localhost:22 remote_server)
        start_ssh()
     
        #Notify me via pushover that connection is up
        send_push("OOBM link up")
 
        sleep(1800)

        m.delete_message(all)
        stop_ssh()
        stop_ppp()
    
        #Notify me via sms that OOBM link is down
        m.send_sms(NUMBER,"OOBM link is down")
        exit(0)

I have omitted the error handling in the pseudo code but I ensure you that the actual script have some.. 😉

The reason i use push messages when the link is up and sms when the link is down is because this modem doesnt have multiplexing and it cant send sms messages while connected.

When the connection is up and running its a simple task to just ssh to remote_server at port 31337 and then login to the OOBM server. From there you can do further ssh connection from the inside of your network or just use the serial console to talk to the router.

% ssh root@remote_server -p31337
root@oobm:~ #
root@oobm:~ # cu -s 57600 -l /dev/cuaU0
Connected

FreeBSD/i386 (gw) (ttyu0)

login:

This is how the setup looks like:

Network diagram
Network diagram

Here is the server installed at its current location

OOBM server on top of power bank
OOBM server on top of power bank

Stratum 1 NTP server with FreeBSD on Raspberry Pi.

Background
We where frustrated at work about the central IT organisation blocking outgoing 123/udp connections. This gave us the idea to buy a GPS controlled NTP server like this one: https://www.meinbergglobal.com/english/products/rack-mount-1u-ntp-server.htm. While doing some research on this subject I found that alot of people seem to build their own stratum 1 NTP servers at home. So I decided to build one myself to use at home.

Prerequisites
There is alot of information floating around on this subject but I wanted to use FreeBSD and Raspberry Pi. It took me a while to figure this out but I bought this set of hardware:
Raspberry Pi 2 Model B
Adafruit Raspberry Pi Case
Adafruit Ultimate GPS Breakout
Adafruit Perma-Proto HAT
External antenna

Basic setup
There is now a new kernel module named gpiopps written by ian@freebsd.org that you can use to get PPS input on any gpio pin. To configure what gpio pin to use you need to rebulid the device tree of your raspberry pi (/usr/src/sys/boot/fdt/dts/arm/rpi2.dts). This is the changes i made:

# svnlite diff
Index: rpi2.dts
===================================================================
--- rpi2.dts	(revision 309114)
+++ rpi2.dts	(working copy)
@@ -337,6 +337,13 @@
 		broadcom,depth = ;		/* Set by VideoCore */
 	};
 
+
+ 	pps@0  {
+		compatible = "pps-gpio";
+		gpios = <&gpio 17 0>;
+		status = "okay";
+	};
+
 	leds {
 		compatible = "gpio-leds";

and then rebuilt the tree

# cd /usr/src/sys/tools/fdt
# setenv MACHINE arm
# ./make_dtb.sh /usr/src/sys /usr/src/sys/boot/fdt/dts/arm/rpi2.dts rpi2.dtb
# cp rpi2.dtb /boot/msdos

Then you can hook up the pps output of the GPS to gpio pin 17 of your raspberry pi and make sure gpiopps is loaded by adding this line to /boot/loader.conf.

gpiopps_load="YES"

Reboot the pi and then you should see something like this in the boot messages

gpiopps0:  on ofwbus0
gpiopps0: PPS input on gpio0 pin 17

Physical setup
For the physical setup I used the Pi, a case and the “perma proto hat” and did some simple soldering to hook up the serial interface of the GPS to the uart serial interface of the Pi, and of course the PPS output to gpio pin 17. I also added a LED to the pps output so I can visually see when I have a working PPS signal.

Soldered proto hard
Soldered proto hard
GPS soldered to the proto hat
GPS soldered to the proto hat

Finished product:

NTP server

GPS configuration
The GPS is actually very easy to talk to. It has a serial interface configured to 9600 baud by default and a dedicated PPS output.

To control the GPS you can send basic text-strings to the unit, for example setting the update rate to 1Hz:

# printf '$PMTK251,57600*2C\r\n' > /dev/cuau0 (Set baudrate to 57600)
# printf '$PMTK314,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0*29\r\n' > /dev/cuau0 (ask only for GPRMC sentences)
# printf '$PMTK220,1000*1F\r\n' > /dev/cuau0 (echo sentences once a second)
# printf '$PMTK300,1000,0,0,0,0*1C\r\n' > /dev/cuau0 (update fix once a second)

If you want a complete set of instructions(commands) you can send to device please see the command set sheet.

NTP configuration
I have four different kind of time sources configured on my stratum 1 server.

1. External time sources (internet). In Sweden we have a pretty neat project at ntp.se where they have built custom ntp-servers using FPGAs and atomic clocks.They should be able to server time at 10Gbit/s line rate. You can read more about this here: http://www.ntp.se. I use all of these servers as reference clocks.

2. Local servers that run ntpd. Just my gateway and my server. In the case that all other references fail they can still discipline each other.

3. PPS input from the GPS module. This is the main thing about this article. The GPS outputs a pulse every second that is then used to discipline ntpd.

4. GMEA data from the GPS module. The GPS also outputs coordinates and times on the serial console. But these timestamps are pretty imprecise, at best its close within a second. (But since we also have PPS this is good enough)

You can see my ntp.conf here below but I will only talk about the GPS-stuff from now on.

I use two different drivers in ntpd. 20 and 22. These are the NMEA and PPS drivers. My settings for the PPS driver is pretty basic, it will automatically look for /dev/pps0 and try to fix to a pps signal. The gpiopps driver creates gpiopps0 so I have added “link gpiopps0 pps0” to /etc/devfs.conf

For the NMEA driver we have a few more settings. First of all “mode 17” sets what type of output the look for from the GPS and what baudrate to use. From the driver documentation you find that bit 0 is used to set processing of $GPMRC sentences from the GPS. Bit 4-6 is used to set baudrate and decimal “16” is 9600. So 9600+$GPMRC=17 right? 🙂 This driver looks for /dev/gps0 by default so I have added “link cuau0 gps0” to /etc/devfs.conf

The fudge time2 is used to compensate for the delays we have in the serial interface of the GPS to make it match PPS more closely.

Please refer to the driver documentation for more settings:
http://doc.ntp.org/4.2.8p8/drivers/driver20.html
http://doc.ntp.org/4.2.8p8/drivers/driver22.html

# Allow traffic to external servers
restrict 194.58.203.20 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 194.58.203.148 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 194.58.204.20 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 194.58.204.148 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 194.58.202.20 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 194.58.202.148 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 194.58.205.20 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 194.58.205.148 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery

# Allow traffic to internal servers
restrict 172.25.0.25 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 172.25.0.1 mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery


# PPS
server 127.127.22.0 flag3 0

# NMEA
server 127.127.20.0 mode 17
fudge 127.127.20.0 time2 +0.767

# Servers
server 194.58.203.20 iburst  prefer
server 194.58.203.148 iburst
server 194.58.204.20 iburst
server 194.58.204.148 iburst
server 194.58.202.20 iburst
server 194.58.202.148 iburst
server 194.58.205.20 iburst
server 194.58.205.148 iburst
server 172.25.0.25
server 172.25.0.1

driftfile /var/db/ntp.drift

# save ntp performance stats
statistics loopstats
statsdir /var/log/ntp/
filegen peerstats file peerstats type day enable
filegen loopstats file loopstats type day enable
filegen clockstats file clockstats type day enable

Running ntpd
So now when we have configured ntpd how does it actually work? This is some output from ntpq -p efter some 30mins of ntpd running:

root@ntp:/dev # ntpq -p
     remote           refid      st t when poll reach   delay   offset  jitter
==============================================================================
 torus.pean.org  172.25.0.10      2 u   20   64  377    0.417    0.816   0.033
 gw.pean.org     172.25.0.10      2 u   18   64  377    0.609    0.462   0.102
oPPS(0)          .PPS.            0 l    5   64  377    0.000    0.133   0.011
xGPS_NMEA(0)     .GPS.            0 l    4   64  377    0.000   62.005   6.586
*gbg1.ntp.se     .PPS.            1 u   21   64  377    7.467    0.052   0.054
+gbg2.ntp.se     .PPS.            1 u   25   64  377    7.514    0.167   0.074
+mmo1.ntp.se     .PPS.            1 u   14   64  377   11.469    0.127   0.221
+mmo2.ntp.se     .PPS.            1 u   22   64  377   11.386    0.152   0.139
+sth1.ntp.se     .PPS.            1 u   12   64  377    2.087    0.130   0.235
+sth2.ntp.se     .PPS.            1 u   17   64  377    2.255    0.158   0.292
-svl1.ntp.se     .PPS.            1 u   13   64  377    6.686   -0.118   1.343
+svl2.ntp.se     .PPS.            1 u    6   64  377    6.015    0.144   1.177

The o in oPPS denotes that ntpd have PPS signal. The x in xGPS_NMEA denotes that this source is marked as a false ticker. The reason for this could be that I have entered a to large fudge factor, its seem to be running 62ms fast at this point. I will keep ntpd running for a few hours and the try to adjust the time fudge accordingly.

Get rid of your fiber converter (tranciever)

Background
I live in a so called “Telia house” (internet, tele and tv are supplied by telia). These services are provided via fiber at my house, and its actually fiber all the way to the patch panel in my apartment. The connection is then coverted from 1000Base-X to 1000Base-T using a media converter from CTS (HET-3012). Maybe a year ago the media converter failed and my connection was down for almost two weeks. It was at that time I got the idea to get rid of the media converter and have the incoming fiber directly connected to my router.  This way I could get rid of one possible cause of failure and also save som space in my already packed patch cupboard.

Prerequisites
First of all I needed a network card that could fit into my router (a Soekris 6501-50). The soekris have a regular PCI Express 1x interface so it was pretty easy to get a card from ebay. I got a LR-Link LREC6230PF-SFP which used the Intel I210 chip which is well supported in FreeBSD by the igb driver.

Then I needed to find the correct SFP for my application. My first problem was that my incoming fiber uses a single fiber and not a pair, I had never seen something like this. But after some reading on the internet and a quick look at the CTS documentation i found that it uses 1310nm for TX and 1550nm for RX and SC contact. After that is was a simple task to just get a SFP with the correct specs from https://www.direktronik.se

Installation and configuration
When I had the hardware I needed there was no problem installing it. The network card fitted quite nicely in the pretty small case of my Soekris and the SFP worked out of the box.

Soekris
bidi SFP

In order to load the driver for this specific card at boot I added this line to /boot/loader.conf

if_igb_load="YES"

Since I wanted to keep my “old” IP adress I configured the same mac-adress on the new card as on the old card. (And yes, I also changed the mac of the old card to avoid conflicts).
rc.conf:

ifconfig_igb0="DHCP ether 00:00:24:d0:XX:XX description 'Internet uplink'"

And this is how the final result looks like inside the patch cupboard. The three black cables are antenna cables for the wifi. You can read more about the general setup of my router here.
Connected fiber